Service Quality in Sports
This paper presents two aims: to evaluate the consistent effects of service quality and ticket pricing on behavioral and satisfaction intention and to extensively determine the service quality model identified by the theoretical explanations. An online study was conducted with the help of sampling soccer fans and a total of 1,335 valid questionnaire responses were implemented for data analysis. With the help of a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), it was represented that the service quality model involving 10 characteristics (crowd experience, seat space, player performance, facility access, opponent characteristics, referees, frontline individuals, security, game atmosphere, and frontline individuals) had a substantial contribution for the data and all of the characteristics showed effective influential properties.
For an additional response process, a structural equation model was formulated to advance the association among different research variables, involving the characteristics of service quality and behavioral analysis. The results of this process overall signified that factors such as crowd experience, player performance, opponent characteristics, game atmosphere, and referees have a direct influence on the satisfaction of service quality. There is a substantial amount of literature present in the field of spectator sports highlighting the measurement of service quality and approaches to impact on post-purchase reactions. Previous studies and literature information have outlined that service quality is associated with the satisfaction of spectators and the behavioral intention. However, most of the studies do not incorporate the aesthetic elements of the service in conceptualization of service quality. The gaps found in the literature were supported in a corresponding manner by Yoshida & James (2011), but there were no suitable examinations and predictions provided for the scale efficacy. Proposed service quality models have never been tested outside the context of popular sports mechanisms such as American college football. However, there are some procedures and analytical reformations which can be used to formulate better rationale and reasoning.
There are some elements which are to be taken into consideration including the ticket pricing strategy and the assortment of ideas in a cultivating manner involving spectator sports such as soccer (Yildiz & Kara, 2012). Provided delivering service is high in terms of quality at fair price and associates to the profits or sports (Yildiz & Kara, 2015). Therefore, a functional understanding should be present of both the service quality and ticket pricing on post-purchase allocations, these are crucial for the success of soccer as a sports business and sports that are linked with it.
Service Quality Analysis
Individuals of the sports place a greater amount of emphasis on behaviors linked with individuals on an emotional level (Theodorakis et al., 2007). It relies on the learning patterns derived from others. Service quality approaches are also found in willing to take risks and changing conventional responsibilities and accountabilities for good (Xiaohan & Xu, 2013). The sports service has a substantial amount of information and knowledge to approach sports efficacy, eliminating systems and processes that are of negative assortment. Since most of the individuals have experienced change more than one times in their professional experience, it is fairly feasible for them to identify and bridge up the limitations and barriers.
Service Quality and Spectators’ Sports
As sports involve individuals that are willing to take initiatives and project outcomes on fellow individuals in an effectual manner but only in the sense of strategic planning and management insight. New programs and strategies are maintained for the effective application of prospects and it is ultimately the responsibility of individuals to maintain sports’ success and professional approach (Theodorakis & Alexandris, 2008). The focus is majorly to highlight the risks associated with the business and to have them pointed out for future mistakes and consequences. Cultural understanding and diversity management for is positive enough as service quality approaches service quality styles bring about the correspondence of different understandings and ideologies (McDonald et al., 2008). Individuals coming from different parts of the world are linked with the sports management to incorporate significant components for functional activities. The self-advancement and reward management for the appraisal of individuals is duly noted with the questionnaire responses.
Service responses for criticism, appreciation, and feedback mechanisms provide an ultimate review of the betterment processes (Murray & Howat, 2006). These differing characteristics and features are further analyzed in comparison with the external sports to see if the commands and functions are better regulated (Ruda et al., 2012). The models approached are also observed for effective applications in using change management factors and multiple responsibilities of contributing nature.
There is a greater appreciation of intellectual stimulation in service quality approaches service quality style as well. Valuing autonomy and creativity among the followers is considerably appreciated for the efforts to be appreciated. Service quality approaches leader provides appropriate prospects from solid ideas where there is room to face challenges and obstacles. Assumption based criterion is followed for the identification of solutions so there are no confusions present in the employee population.
Conceptualization of the Model
Application of service quality theory and models have been discussed and differentiated from an effective outlook and approach as maintaining a suitable understanding is qualitative enough for various contemporary and seminal management ideas (Shank & Lyberger, 2014). Involvement of non-conformist behaviors, consistent development, regulations of unpredictability, assigning of task on a timely basis have placed the evolution of structures and control processes in the process (Shonk & Chelladurai, 2008). The vision and mission statements are clearly understood which fundamentally create the approaches of constant growth.
Using the external sports survey, the results provide an effective analysis of the democratic and additional conventional service quality models as well. With the response development, it is evident enough that the individualized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation are only partly followed by the individuals (Greenwell et al., 2008). There is a supportive presence of these characteristic but the interchange of bargains between the followers and their leader is rather democratic. There are two factors conventionally attributed to the traditional service quality methods of the external sports (Dhurup et al., 2006). The first one being contingent reward service quality is considered as both positive and active interchange between the follower and leader. Fellow individuals of the team are provided with assistance and help and they are recognized for successful completion of previously assigned objectives and goals. The sports also contribute the functionalities of approaching merits, recognition, and bonus receiving applications.
The responses of experience, sports change, and encouragement options are presumed to reflect that the individuals achieve only a particular amount of negotiated performance level (Alexandris et al., 2006). The reward and appreciation provided is only dependent on the completion of the task in a satisfactory manner. As long as there is a mutual understanding present between the leader and team member, the arrangement of the association will commence in a successful manner, with conclusive performance management and reward approvals (Athanasopoulou et al., 2013). Even though the workplace of this form positively influences the revenue and profit generation, the employee satisfaction results and empowerment notions reflect that the service quality involvement does not take into consideration innovative strategies and techniques on the same level.
Traditional service quality responses from both the questionnaire methods reflect that the employers and team leaders may also approach the fellow team members when mistakes or problems happen, that is by overlooking any prevention processes until some complications occurs (Chaffey & White, 2010). In such conditions, traditional service quality methods are categorized as management-by-exception (Davies, 2014). With the help of either active or passive methods, continual observation or monitoring of team members is carried out. With the questionnaire survey, it is feasible to notice that the individuals are motivated and trusted to accomplish their objectives (Eun & Lee, 2012). However, specific purposes and initiatives are involved. The anticipation of mistakes and risks is clearly evident.
With the help of survey results, it can also be observed that the external sports, implementing traditional methods of service quality, set out and clarify boundaries. There are standards and expectations from the team members (Garber et al., 2011). An approach for monitoring and assessment is also developed to bring about the understanding of performance influence and employee satisfaction procedures.
The involvement of traditional service quality styles for the overall approach following processes can occur in a consistent manner (Girginov, 2008). Goals and objectives are clarified in the beginning thus corrective action is supposed to be mediating and of an immediate nature as the leader consistent measures contribution efforts against expectations (Grönroos, 2014). According to the responses, it can be designated that the leader sets out completion of tasks determining whether or not an issue prevails. The problems with their solutions are identified after the complication has been highlighted (Howat et al., 2006). This strategic development and ideology formulation has demonstrated consistent negative conditions on performance and satisfactory remarks of external sports.
The application of traditional-service quality approaches characteristics for effective outcomes focus primarily on the leaders to provide experience and proficient regulations that enhance social, personal, environmental, and developmental characteristics of an individual (Huang, 2011). According to the responses recorded, the beliefs, values, confidence, self-constructs, emotional and professional growth is present in individuals. There is only a requirement present for the professional teams to have an appropriate service quality mechanism implemented (Jae Ko et al., 2011). A generalized perspective can be achieved that the concept of service quality is more than ensuring tasks completion (Howat et al., 2009). The process requires an affirmative amount of dedication, focus, and capability of outlining interventions before the mistakes and challenges occur in sports.
Although from both questionnaire responses, an equal amount of acceptance, trustworthiness, empathy, care, acceptance, creativity, and compassion is outlined, the indication of service quality approaches procedures for external sports members is not quite specific (Thamnopoulos et al., 2012). Traditional service quality styles outline adoption of specific contextual styles for the presentation of ideas in a coordinating manner, whereas service quality approaches service quality has multiple options to offer (Suh, et al., 2013). There is more room for evidence, knowledge and consideration of different fields. Materials that are being researched are also representative for the creativity and innovative strategies that are essential for growth and development overall.
Both the sports responses outlined that the decisions are made based on the involvement of people and teams at work (Garber, et al., 2011). However, appreciation answers are greater than the other one presenting the value of service quality approaches elements and structural functions. The individualized consideration behaviors are greater for individuals as well (Gratton & Jones, 2010). The representation of challenging individuals is evident from both questionnaire responses and it further supports the idea of training of future leaders and administrators.
As outlined with the help of analysis and findings, leaders of both the companies are required to take into consideration a variety of different regulations and responsibilities that provide suitable therapeutic programs and activities (Kim et al., 2014). These can be group management, demonstration and teaching of suitable technical skills, along with the personal involvement and appreciative efforts (Levy, 2009). Team members expect a facilitation of professional growth and successful accomplishment of combined goals, providing recreational, developmental, and educational programs, highlighting the effectual risk management.
Traditional service quality models therefore maybe useful to some extent for the support of task-focused service quality (Liu, 2011). If there are individualized and focused, several beneficial outcomes can be derived of improving social aspects such as communication. However, it can also be discussed that the traditional service quality may not be effectual for producing dynamic structure of the sports. Change management structures and long term outcomes for the same purpose cannot be regulated in an appropriate manner.
For the sports that are considering the applications of these two service quality methods, there is a significant need of education implication in the process (Martínez & Martínez, 2008). Companies have an immense amount of information regarding their procedures, motivational outcomes and intellectual stimulation, there are commitment and innovation prospects provided for constructive outcomes. Feedback procedures serve a greater purpose in this manner as critical decisions can be discussed and elaborated for benefitting solutions. Professional leaders implement their power and authority mediations for the successful association of management outcomes but documentation of personality traits and implementing them in a collaborating manner is essential enough (Suh et al., 2010). The use of multi-cultural approach is significant enough to take into consideration new procedures and standards for sports; these can possibly bring about the promotion and adaptation to the new cultural environment for future rehabilitations.
This study was accomplished to see if there was a difference in outcomes present between service quality approaches in soccer as professional sports. Responses and answers from both the firms show that the social initiative score and open-mindedness for the sports following service quality approaches to service quality style is beneficial. Individuals with cultural empathy, flexibility towards innovation, and creativity have gained an optimum field experience and emotional intelligence traits (Mamic, 2005). They have been involved with the sports change procedures to further enhance the outlook and viewpoint of the management dimensions. For different fields, involvements and directional involvement can be profitability attained.
This study has been carried out to compare and contrast two different service quality models. Concepts of service quality approaches service quality model are differentiated with the traditional service quality models and with the help of survey questions trait analysis for each service quality model is carried out in an effective manner (Mamic, 2005). For service quality approaches to service quality style, key traits such as inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation.
Since the traditional models of service quality imply democratic and transactional service quality characteristics, they are found rather outdated and inconsistent with the outcomes. The experience and change management procedures are not enhanced on a corporate level as well. Service quality approaches service quality skills are responsible for the outlining of three main objectives including the observation of the link between employee performance and motivation institutionally (Mamic, 2005). For this study, several questionnaire questions configured individuals of their interest in work, how timely were they appreciated, if feedback was provided in a timely manner and the sports that followed service quality approaches service quality skills provided had the most optimum responses.
The study concluded if there was any change management perspective outlined with the help of service quality approaches or traditional service quality skills. It was evaluated using two different methods of motivation and rewarding procedures. Individuals, based on their experience and change management perspectives outlined that there was an appropriate involvement of communication, influence, and individual consideration. To maintain a healthy relationship between the management and individuals, the sports attained different appraisal methods for team coordination and working conditions (Udo, et al., 2010). The study outlined the reassuring and provision aspects of the service quality approaches service quality style on a regular basis.
There was an involvement of intellectual stimulation among the individuals following service quality approaches service quality effectively (Ko, et al., 2007). The process has been responsible for the improvement of working conditions as well as to maintain a healthy relationship between the individuals and employer. The study also commends the provision outcomes of the employee needs and requirements.
There are multiple Management Information System (MIS) procedures that can be followed for the evaluation of service quality approaches service quality options for the planning and risk assessment procedures in sports (Ko, et al., 2007). These are defined as tools which provide the knowledge and information required for the effective institutional management. Diligent and proficient information amount is required for the competitive and reasonable decision making processes (Ko, et al., 2007). Different management levels and views of service quality approaches supper the association’s long term management perspectives and aims; individual business conformations are implemented that are suitable for business making decisions and support of the association’s long term objectives. All of the business objectives are feasibly implementing and using MIS, and on a frequent basis.
Service quality approaches leaders should have an evaluation purpose for the effectual nature of information system management. Individuals that are assigned for the evaluation of options are responsible for the procedure of calculating the benefitting nature of intellectual stimulation and inspirational motivation as it coincides with the functional and operational requirements. Examining should be coordinated with the computerized applications as smaller end-user-computing systems can make better decisions for businesses.
Service quality approaches to service quality system provides authorized individuals with insight and knowledge of the decision making process overall improvising on the tendencies and job performance activities outlining the sports. At a level which involves shareholders and higher job authorities, management information system is responsible for providing information and data to assist the management and board mechanisms to make decisions in a strategic manner. On differentiating levels otherwise, information system can develop an observation system and information distribution channel for other individuals, management and members/consumers.
To work in an effectual manner, as a tool for revising comments relating staff and management, management information system can be accountable. The factors of this process and functionalities that form suitable system are:
Timeliness: to ease out the process of decision making, an association’s management information system should have the capability of distributing and providing prevailing knowledge to suitable individuals. Online developers should be responsible of making IT systems to accelerate the reports availability.
Precision: information of every form should be perceived according to the proper balance, edited knowledge, and control of internal factors to make sure of the precision.
Constancy: to be discrete and acknowledged, information should be evaluated and contributed in a constant manner with uniform distribution of ideas. Irregularities in the collection of data and methods of its presentation can very much alter the trend and information calculation.